Thiers, Louis-Adolphe


Thiers, Louis-Adolphe
(1797-1877)
   statesman, journalist, historian
   Born in Marseille, Louis-Adolphe Thiers was an attorney in Aix-en-Provence before coming to Paris, where he frequented literary circles. There, he contributed to a journal, La Constitution, and published, between 1823 and 1827, his Histoire de la Révolution. A founder, with armand carrel and others, of the opposition newspaper Le National (January 1830), he became the defender of a constitutional monarchy based on the English model and, on July 26, 1830, took part in the drafting of the journalists' protest to the Ordinances of Saint-Cloud, thus beginning the revolution of 1830. Having supported the orléanists, Thiers served successively as councilor of state, deputy for Aix, secretary-general to the minister of finances in the leftist cabinet, minister of the interior (1832), then of agriculture and trade (1834). Carrying the portfolio of the interior and of foreign affairs (1834-36), he took a strong stand against the legitimist-royalist opposition (the affair of the duchesse of Berry, 1839), as well as against the republican riots of April 1834. After King louis-philippe refused to intervene in Spanish affairs, as Thiers had wished, he was dismissed (1836) but returned to the government in 1840 as foreign minister. in that role, Thiers pursued an aggressive policy, intervening in North Africa and almost causing a war with Great Britain after signing the Treaty of London (July 1840). Forced to resign again, he began work on his Histoire du Consulat et de l'Empire (1845-62) while remaining as a center-left deputy in the opposition and taking part in the fall of the government of François guizot. On February 23, 1840, Louis-Philippe recalled Thiers to form a new ministry, but it was too late. Thiers sided with the provisional government and, as deputy, consistently voted with the conservative right against the socialists. After having supported the candidacy of Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (see napoléon III) for the presidency, he then fought against the creation of the second empire, was arrested, and, after the coup d'état of December 2, 1851, went into exile in Switzerland. Returning to France in 1852, he remained out of politics until 1863. He became leader of the liberal opposition and roused the National Assembly by his speech on "necessary freedom" (personal, electoral, and press), and through his opposition to the emperor's foreign policy. After the defeat at Sedan and the surrender of Napoléon III, he was sent by jules favre to various European capitals to plead the French cause (September-October 1870). After this fruitless effort, he was sent to negotiate with Bismarck at versailles (November 1870). Elected to the National Assembly, which since February 12, 1871, had been meeting at bordeaux, Thiers was named chief executive (February 17) and formed a government of national unity that chose versailles as its headquarters. The signing of the preliminaries with Bismarck (February 28), by which Thiers obtained a reduction of France's war indemnity and kept Belfort as French territory, and then the Bordeaux Pact (March 10, 1871), which left in suspension the question of national institutions until an administrative reorganization took place, angered Parisians, whose economic, social, and military situation was a catastrophe. Thiers's subsequent attempt to confiscate artillery from Paris caused the Paris commune uprising. Having made the decision to leave the city (March 25), Thiers signed the Treaty of Frankfurt with Prussia (May 10) and shortly after violently suppressed the Commune ("Bloody Week," May 22-28). As president of the republic, he sought to pay off the French indemnity, reform finances and the military (institution of five years' obligatory service), and secure the total German evacuation of French territory by 1873. Nonetheless, he was defeated in May 1873 by the conservative majority and replaced by marshal edme mac-mahon. Elected deputy, he again served as a leader of the republican opposition. Thiers was elected to the Académie Française in 1833.

France. A reference guide from Renaissance to the Present . 1884.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Thiers, Louis-Adolphe — • French statesman and historian, first president of the Third French Republic (1797 1877) Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006 …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Thiers,Louis Adolphe — Thiers (tē ĕrʹ), Louis Adolphe. 1797 1877. French politician and historian who was the first president (1871 1873) of the republic formed after the fall of Napoleon III. * * * …   Universalium

  • Thiers, (Louis-) Adolphe — (18 abr. 1797, Marsella, Francia–3 sep. 1877, Saint Germain en Laye, cerca de París). Político e historiador francés. Se trasladó a París en 1821 como periodista y cofundó el periódico opositor Le National en 1830. En la Revolución de julio apoyó …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Thiers, (Louis-) Adolphe — born April 18, 1797, Marseille, France died Sept. 3, 1877, Saint Germain en Laye, near Paris French politician and historian. He went to Paris in 1821 as a journalist and cofounded the opposition newspaper National in 1830. In the July Revolution …   Universalium

  • THIERS, LOUIS ADOLPHE —    French statesman and historian, born at Marseilles, of parents in poor circumstances; studied law at Aix, became acquainted with Mignet the historian; went with him to Paris, and took to journalism; published in 1827 his History of the French… …   The Nuttall Encyclopaedia

  • Louis Adolphe Thiers — Adolphe Thiers, Aufnahme Nadar Adolphe Thiers (1797 1877) Louis Adolphe Thiers (* 16. April 1797 in Marseille; † …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Louis-Adolphe Thiers —     Louis Adolphe Thiers     † Catholic Encyclopedia ► Louis Adolphe Thiers     French statesman and historian, first president of the Third French Republic, b. at Marseilles, 16 April, 1797; d. at Paris, 3 Sept., 1877. Established at Paris in… …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Louis Adolphe Thiers — Adolphe Thiers Pour les articles homonymes, voir Thiers. Adolphe Thiers …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Louis Adolphe Cochery — (August 26, 1819 ndash;October 13, 1900) was a French politician and journalist.BiographyBorn in Paris, he studied Law and soon after soon entered politics, joining the staff of the Ministry of Justice after the revolution of February 1848. From… …   Wikipedia

  • Adolphe Thiers — Louis Adolphe Thiers President of the French Republic Co Prince of Andorra In office was Chief of Executive Power from 17 February to 30 August 1871 …   Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.